Dezember 2015: Das Oakland Institutehat 33 Fallstudien über agrarökologische Landwirtschaft in Afrika vorgelegt, die die Bandbreite bestehender Verfahren und deren Erfolge zeigen. Alice Martin-Prével, Policy Analyst beim Oakland Institute, schreibt dazu:
"Recently released 33 cases studies from the Oakland Institute showcase the success of agroecology in Africa, a different way of stimulating agricultural development while addressing global challenges and benefiting farmers. For instance, a case study from Niger features a large land rehabilitation project in the desertification-stricken valley of Keita. Through reforestation interventions, the consolidation of waterways, and sustainable cultivation techniques, the Keita valley woodlands increased by 319 percent between 1984 and 2002, while dunes areas decreased by 33 percent in the same period. The project was credited with sequestering approximately 132,000 tons of CO2 per year. Furthermore, farmers’ yields increased, with cereal production rising from 39,000 to 55,000 tons. Another study from Ethiopia’s Tigray region describes a “low external input” approach based on compost use, land rehabilitation practices, and improved biodiversity. This method allowed for a reduction in chemical fertilizer use by 40 percent, while the region’s grain yields doubled within three years. In addition to improving farmers’ incomes, the project helped combat erosion, improve soil moisture, and preserve Tigray’s water tables."
"In Tigray, the regional Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (BoARD) played a key role in scaling up the low external input approach through its extension services. The BoARD’s involvement allowed the program to reach over 90 communities in 25 districts with some of the most degraded lands. In a study of Malawi and Zambia, governments, research institutes, and international agencies partnered to promote the cultivation of cassava, which requires little water and no chemical inputs. The goal was to reduce farmers’ dependency on maize monocultures and to help mitigate the effects of drought on food security. Astonishing results were achieved, with a three-fold increase in cassava production in Zambia between 1980 and 2001, from 315,000 tons to 950,000 tons, and even greater expansion in Malawi from 144,760 tons in 1990 to 4,813,699 tons in 2013."
"As the Oakland Institute’s research demonstrates, strong government involvement and mobilization of agricultural extension services is crucial in building relationships with rural communities and effectively supporting farmers’ livelihoods. In addition, farmer-centered programs reduce public spending, as they build on already existing solutions and do away with expensive subsidies programs for agricultural inputs. Finally, supporting traditional and sustainable farming can preserve water resources, help regenerate soils, and fight soil erosion, leading to long-term yield and income gains."
"The case studies show, with a wealth of examples and details, that there are millions of farmers practicing agroecology who are active market players, trading their goods at the local, national, and even international level. In Niger, the sale of cereals, vegetables, livestock, and wood produced using sustainable methods provided additional incomes of over US$15 million per year in the Keita valley region. Through an agroforestry and sustainable agriculture project in Rwanda, farmer cooperatives were created in several districts. Within three years, the cooperatives were selling 1,000 liters of milk daily, at a price a 33 percent higher than ongoing rates. In Zambia, the Community Market for Conservation (COMACO) program developed a network of six Regional Community Trading Centers, which service 75 Community Trading Depots. The centers process, package, and market goods collected in the depots, bringing hundreds of thousands of revenue to local communities every year."
"The promotion of agroecology requires political will. Governments have to embrace the complexity of local contexts and natural agro-ecosystems, in order to implement bottom-up policies that place farmers at the center of decision processes. Top-down approaches, which neither acknowledge the complexity of each environment nor engage with farmers, need to be discarded, even if they are backed by billions of dollars of aid."
Quelle: Alice Martin-Prével, Why the World Bank Is Missing the Point on Agricultural Development, Blog vom 9. Dezember 2015